Week 31 – Early TIPS in Cirrhosis with Variceal Bleeding

“Early Use of TIPS in Patients with Cirrhosis and Variceal Bleeding”

N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 24;362(25):2370-9. [free full text]

Variceal bleeding is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in decompensated cirrhosis. The standard of care for an acute variceal bleed includes a combination of vasoactive drugs, prophylactic antibiotics, and endoscopic techniques (e.g. banding). Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) can be used to treat refractory bleeding. This 2010 trial sought to determine the utility of early TIPS during the initial bleed in high-risk patients when compared to standard therapy.

The trial enrolled cirrhotic patients (Child-Pugh class B or C with score ≤ 13) with acute esophageal variceal bleeding. All patients received endoscopic band ligation (EBL) or endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) at the time of diagnostic endoscopy. All patients also received vasoactive drugs (terlipressin, somatostatin, or octreotide). Patients were randomized to either TIPS performed within 72 hours after diagnostic endoscopy or to “standard therapy” by 1) treatment with vasoactive drugs with transition to nonselective beta blocker when patients were free of bleeding followed by 2) addition of isosorbide mononitrate to maximum tolerated dose, and 3) a second session of EBL at 7-14 days after the initial session (repeated q10-14 days until variceal eradication was achieved). The primary outcome was a composite of failure to control acute bleeding or failure to prevent “clinically significant” variceal bleeding (requiring hospital admission or transfusion) at 1 year after enrollment. Selected secondary outcomes included 1-year mortality, development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), ICU days, and hospital LOS.

359 patients were screened for inclusion, but ultimately only 63 were randomized. Baseline characteristics were similar among the two groups except that the early TIPS group had a higher rate of patients with previous hepatic encephalopathy. The primary composite endpoint of failure to control acute bleeding or rebleeding within 1 year occurred in 14 of 31 (45%) patients in the pharmacotherapy-EBL group and in only 1 of 32 (3%) of the early TIPS group (p = 0.001). The 1-year actuarial probability of remaining free of the primary outcome was 97% in the early TIPS group vs. 50% in the pharmacotherapy-EBL group (ARR 47 percentage points, 95% CI 25-69 percentage points, NNT 2.1). Regarding mortality, at one year, 12 of 31 (39%) patients in the pharmacotherapy-EBL group had died, while only 4 of 32 (13%) in the early TIPS group had died (p = 0.001, NNT = 4.0). There were no group differences in prevalence of HE at one year (28% in the early TIPS group vs. 40% in the pharmacotherapy-EBL group, p = 0.13). Additionally, there were no group differences in 1-year actuarial probability of new or worsening ascites. There were also no differences in length of ICU stay or hospitalization duration.

Early TIPS in acute esophageal variceal bleeding, when compared to standard pharmacotherapy and endoscopic band ligation, improved control of index bleeding, reduced recurrent variceal bleeding at 1 year, and reduced all-cause mortality. Prior studies had demonstrated that TIPS reduced the rebleeding rate but increased the rate of hepatic encephalopathy without improving survival. As such, TIPS had only been recommended as a rescue therapy. Obviously, this study presents compelling data that challenge these paradigms. The authors note that in “patients with Child-Pugh class C or in class B with active variceal bleeding, failure to initially control the bleeding or early rebleeding contributes to further deterioration in liver function, which in turn worsens the prognosis and may preclude the use of rescue TIPS.” Authors at UpToDate note that, given the totality of evidence to date, the benefit of early TIPS in preventing rebleeding “is offset by its failure to consistently improve survival and increasing morbidity due to the development of liver failure and encephalopathy.” Today, TIPS remains primarily a salvage therapy for use in cases of recurrent bleeding despite standard pharmacotherapy and EBL. There may be a subset of patients in whom early TIPS is the ideal strategy, but further trials will be required to identify this subset.

Further Reading/References:
1. Wiki Journal Club []
2. 2 Minute Medicine []
3. UpToDate, “Prevention of recurrent variceal hemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis

Summary by Duncan F. Moore, MD

Week 29 – PneumA

“Comparison of 8 vs 15 Days of Antibiotic Therapy for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Adults”

JAMA. 2003 November 19;290(19):2588-2598. [free full text]

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a frequent complication of mechanical ventilation and, prior to this study, few trials had addressed the optimal duration of antibiotic therapy in VAP. Thus, patients frequently received 14- to 21-day antibiotic courses. As antibiotic stewardship efforts increased and awareness grew of the association between prolonged antibiotic courses and the development of multidrug resistant (MDR) infections, more data were needed to clarify the optimal VAP treatment duration.

This 2003 trial by the PneumA Trial Group was the first large randomized trial to compare shorter (8-day) versus longer (15-day) treatment courses for VAP.

The noninferiority study, carried out in 51 French ICUs, enrolled intubated patients with clinical suspicion for VAP and randomized them to either 8 or 15 days of antimicrobials. Antimicrobial regimens were chosen by the treating clinician. 401 patients met eligibility criteria. 197 were randomized to the 8-day regimen. 204 patients were randomized to the 15-day regimen. Study participants were blinded to randomization assignment until day 8. Analysis was performed using an intention-to-treat model. The primary outcomes measured were death from any cause at 28 days, antibiotic-free days, and microbiologically documented pulmonary infection recurrence.

Study findings demonstrated a similar 28-day mortality in both groups (18.8% mortality in 8-day group vs. 17.2% in 15-day group, group difference 90% CI -3.7% to 6.9%). The 8-day group did not develop more recurrent infections (28.9% in 8-day group vs. 26.0% in 15-day group, group difference 90% CI -3.2% to 9.1%). The 8-day group did have more antibiotic-free days when measured at the 28-day point (13.1 in 8-day group vs. 8.7 in 15-day group, p<0.001). A subgroup analysis did show that more 8-day-group patients who had an initial infection with lactose-nonfermenting GNRs developed a recurrent pulmonary infection, so noninferiority was not established in this specific subgroup (40.6% recurrent GNR infection in 8-day group vs. 25.4% in 15-day group, group difference 90% CI 3.9% to 26.6%).

Implications/Discussion:
There is no benefit to prolonging VAP treatment to 15 days (except perhaps when Pseudomonas aeruginosa is suspected based on gram stain/culture data). Shorter courses of antibiotics for VAP treatment allow for less antibiotic exposure without increasing rates of recurrent infection or mortality.

The 2016 IDSA guidelines on VAP treatment recommend a 7-day course of antimicrobials for treatment of VAP (as opposed to a longer treatment course such as 8-15 days). These guidelines are based on the IDSA’s own large meta-analysis (of 10 randomized trials, including PneumA, as well as an observational study) which demonstrated that shorter courses of antibiotics (7 days) reduce antibiotic exposure and recurrent pneumonia due to MDR organisms without affecting clinical outcomes, such as mortality. Of note, this 7-day course recommendation also applies to treatment of lactose-nonfermenting GNRs, such as Pseudomonas.

When considering the PneumA trial within the context of the newest IDSA guidelines, we see that we now have over 15 years of evidence supporting the use of shorter VAP treatment courses.

Further Reading/References:
1. 2016 IDSA Guidelines for the Management of HAP/VAP
2. Wiki Journal Club
3. PulmCCM “IDSA Guidelines 2016: HAP, VAP & It’s the End of HCAP as We Know It (And I Feel Fine)”
4. PulmCrit “The siren’s call: Double-coverage for ventilator associated PNA”

Summary by Liz Novick, MD

Image Credit: Joseaperez, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Week 28 – Symptom-Triggered Benzodiazepines in Alcohol Withdrawal

“Symptom-Triggered vs Fixed-Schedule Doses of Benzodiazepine for Alcohol Withdrawal”

Arch Intern Med. 2002 May 27;162(10):1117-21. [free full text]

Treatment of alcohol withdrawal with benzodiazepines has been the standard of care for decades. However, in the 1990s, benzodiazepine therapy for alcohol withdrawal was generally given via fixed doses. In 1994, a double-blind RCT by Saitz et al. demonstrated that symptom-triggered therapy based on responses to the CIWA-Ar scale reduced treatment duration and the amount of benzodiazepine used relative to a fixed-schedule regimen. This trial had little immediate impact in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. The authors of the 2002 double-blind RCT sought to confirm the findings from 1994 in a larger population that did not exclude patients with a history of seizures or severe alcohol withdrawal.

The trial enrolled consecutive patients admitted to the inpatient alcohol treatment units at two European universities (excluding those with “major cognitive, psychiatric, or medical comorbidity”) and randomized them to treatment with either scheduled placebo (30mg q6hrs x4, followed by 15mg q6hrs x8) with additional PRN oxazepam 15mg for CIWA score 8-15 and 30mg for CIWA score > 15 or to treatment with scheduled oxazepam (30mg q6hrs x4, followed by 15mg q6hrs x8) with additional PRN oxazepam 15mg for CIWA score 8-15 and 30mg for CIWA score > 15.

The primary outcomes were cumulative oxazepam dose at 72 hours and duration of treatment with oxazepam. Subgroup analysis included the exclusion of symptomatic patients who did not require any oxazepam. Secondary outcomes included incidence of seizures, hallucinations, and delirium tremens at 72 hours.

Results:
117 patients completed the trial. 56 had been randomized to the symptom-triggered group, and 61 had been randomized to the fixed-schedule group. The groups were similar in all baseline characteristics except that the fixed-schedule group had on average a 5-hour longer interval since last drink prior to admission. While only 39% of the symptom-triggered group actually received oxazepam, 100% of the fixed-schedule group did (p < 0.001). Patients in the symptom-triggered group received a mean cumulative dose of 37.5mg versus 231.4mg in the fixed-schedule group (p < 0.001). The mean duration of oxazepam treatment was 20.0 hours in the symptom-triggered group versus 62.7 hours in the fixed-schedule group. The group difference in total oxazepam dose persisted even when patients who did not receive any oxazepam were excluded. Among patients who did receive oxazepam, patients in the symptom-triggered group received 95.4 ± 107.7mg versus 231.4 ± 29.4mg in the fixed-dose group (p < 0.001). Only one patient in the symptom-triggered group sustained a seizure. There were no seizures, hallucinations, or episodes of delirium tremens in any of the other 116 patients. The two treatment groups had similar quality-of-life and symptom scores aside from slightly higher physical functioning in the symptom-triggered group (p < 0.01). See Table 2.

Implication/Discussion:
Symptom-triggered administration of benzodiazepines in alcohol withdrawal led to a six-fold reduction in cumulative benzodiazepine use and a much shorter duration of pharmacotherapy than fixed-schedule administration. This more restrictive and responsive strategy did not increase the risk of major adverse outcomes such as seizure or DTs and also did not result in increased patient discomfort.

Overall, this study confirmed the findings of the landmark study by Saitz et al. from eight years prior. Additionally, this trial was larger and did not exclude patients with a prior history of withdrawal seizures or severe withdrawal. The fact that both studies took place in inpatient specialty psychiatry units limits their generalizability to our inpatient general medicine populations.

Why the initial 1994 study did not gain clinical traction remains unclear. Both studies have been well-cited over the ensuing decades, and the paradigm has shifted firmly toward symptom-triggered benzodiazepine regimens using the CIWA scale. While a 2010 Cochrane review cites only the 1994 study, Wiki Journal Club and 2 Minute Medicine have entries on this 2002 study but not on the equally impressive 1994 study.

Further Reading/References:
1. “Individualized treatment for alcohol withdrawal. A randomized double-blind controlled trial.” JAMA. 1994.
2. Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale, Revised (CIWA-Ar)
3. Wiki Journal Club
4. 2 Minute Medicine
5. “Benzodiazepines for alcohol withdrawal.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010

Summary by Duncan F. Moore, MD

Image Credit: VisualBeo, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Week 26 – HACA

“Mild Therapeutic Hypothermia to Improve the Neurologic Outcome After Cardiac Arrest”

by the Hypothermia After Cardiac Arrest Study Group

N Engl J Med. 2002 Feb 21;346(8):549-56. [free full text]

Neurologic injury after cardiac arrest is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. It is hypothesized that brain reperfusion injury (via the generation of free radicals and other inflammatory mediators) following ischemic time is the primary pathophysiologic basis. Animal models and limited human studies have demonstrated that patients treated with mild hypothermia following cardiac arrest have improved neurologic outcome. The 2002 HACA study sought to evaluate prospectively the utility of therapeutic hypothermia in reducing neurologic sequelae and mortality post-arrest.

Population: European patients who achieve return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after presenting to the ED in cardiac arrest

inclusion criteria: witnessed arrest, ventricular fibrillation or non-perfusing ventricular tachycardia as initial rhythm, estimated interval 5 to 15 min from collapse to first resuscitation attempt, no more than 60 min from collapse to ROSC, age 18-75

pertinent exclusion: pt already < 30ºC on admission, comatose state prior to arrest d/t CNS drugs, response to commands following ROSC

Intervention: Cooling to target temperature 32-34ºC with maintenance for 24 hrs followed by passive rewarming. Pts received pancuronium for neuromuscular blockade to prevent shivering.

Comparison: Standard intensive care

Outcomes:
Primary: a “favorable neurologic outcome” at 6 months defined as Pittsburgh cerebral-performance scale category 1 (good recovery) or 2 (moderate disability). (Of note, the examiner was blinded to treatment group allocation.)

Secondary:

  • all-cause mortality at 6 months
  • specific complications within the first 7 days: bleeding “of any severity,” pneumonia, sepsis, pancreatitis, renal failure, pulmonary edema, seizures, arrhythmias, and pressure sores

Results:
3551 consecutive patients were assessed for enrollment and ultimately 275 met inclusion criteria and were randomized. The normothermia group had more baseline DM and CAD and were more likely to have received BLS from a bystander prior to the ED.

Regarding neurologic outcome at 6 months, 75 of 136 (55%) of the hypothermia group had a favorable neurologic outcome, versus 54/137 (39%) in the normothermia group (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.08-1.81, p = 0.009; NNT = 6). After adjusting for all baseline characteristics, the RR increased slightly to 1.47 (95% CI 1.09-1.82).

Regarding death at 6 months, 41% of the hypothermia group had died, versus 55% of the normothermia group (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95, p = 0.02; NNT = 7). After adjusting for all baseline characteristics, RR = 0.62 (95% CI 0.36-0.95). There was no difference among the two groups in the rate of any complication or in the total number of complications during the first 7 days.

Implication/Discussion:
In ED patients with Vfib or pulseless VT arrest who did not have meaningful response to commands after ROSC, immediate therapeutic hypothermia reduced the rate of neurologic sequelae and mortality at 6 months.

Corresponding practice point from Dr. Sonti and Dr. Vinayak and their Georgetown Critical Care Top 40: “If after ROSC your patient remains unresponsive and does not have refractory hypoxemia/hypotension/coagulopathy, you should initiate therapeutic hypothermia even if the arrest was PEA. The benefit seen was substantial and any proposed biologic mechanism would seemingly apply to all causes of cardiac arrest. The investigators used pancuronium to prevent shivering; [at MGUH] there is a ‘shivering’ protocol in place and if refractory, paralytics can be used.”

This trial, as well as a concurrent publication by Benard et al. ushered in a new paradigm of therapeutic hypothermia or “targeted temperature management” (TTM) following cardiac arrest. Numerous trials in related populations and with modified interventions (e.g. target temperature 36º C) were performed over the following decade, and ultimately led to the current standard of practice.

Per UpToDate, the collective trial data suggest that “active control of the post-cardiac arrest patient’s core temperature, with a target between 32 and 36ºC, followed by active avoidance of fever, is the optimal strategy to promote patient survival.” TTM should be undertaken in all patients who do not follow commands or have purposeful movements following ROSC. Expert opinion at UpToDate recommends maintaining temperature control for at least 48 hours.

Further Reading/References:
1. HACA @ 2 Minute Medicine
2. HACA @ Wiki Journal Club
3. HACA @ Visualmed
4. Georgetown Critical Care Top 40, page 23 (Jan. 2016)
5. PulmCCM.org, “Hypothermia did not help after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, in largest study yet”
6. Cochrane Review, “Hypothermia for neuroprotection in adults after cardiopulmonary resuscitation”
7. The NNT, “Mild Therapeutic Hypothermia for Neuroprotection Following CPR”
8. UpToDate, “Post-cardiac arrest management in adults”

Summary by Duncan F. Moore, MD

Week 23 – TRICC

“A Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Transfusion Requirements in Critical Care”

N Engl J Med. 1999 Feb 11; 340(6): 409-417. [free full text]

Although intuitively a hemoglobin closer to normal physiologic concentration seems like it would be beneficial, the vast majority of the time in inpatient settings we use a hemoglobin concentration of 7g/dL as our threshold for transfusion in anemia. Historically, higher hemoglobin cutoffs were used with aims to keep Hgb > 10g/dL. In 1999, the landmark TRICC trial demonstrated no mortality benefit in the liberal transfusion strategy and harm in certain subgroup analyses.

Population:

Inclusion: critically ill patients expected to be in ICU > 24h, Hgb ≤ 9g/dL within 72hr of ICU admission, and clinically euvolemic after fluid resuscitation

Exclusion criteria: age < 16, inability to receive blood products, active bleed, chronic anemia, pregnancy, brain death, consideration of withdrawal of care, and admission after routine cardiac procedure.

Patients were randomized to either a liberal transfusion strategy (transfuse to Hgb goal 10-12g/dL, n = 420) or a restrictive strategy (transfuse to Hgb goal 7-9g/dL, n = 418). The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included 60-day all-cause mortality, mortality during hospital stay (ICU plus step-down), multiple-organ dysfunction score, and change in organ dysfunction from baseline. Subgroup analyses included APACHE II score ≤ 20 (i.e. less-ill patients), patients younger than 55, cardiac disease, severe infection/septic shock, and trauma.

Results:
The primary outcome of 30-day mortality was similar between the two groups (18.7% vs. 23.3%, p = 0.11). The secondary outcome of mortality rate during hospitalization was lower in the restrictive strategy (22.2% vs. 28.1%, p = 0.05). (Of note, the mean length of stay was about 35 days for both groups.) 60-day all-cause mortality trended towards lower in the restrictive strategy although did not reach statistical significance (22.7% vs. 26.5 %, p = 0.23). Between the two groups, there was no significant difference in multiple-organ dysfunction score or change in organ dysfunction from baseline.

Subgroup analyses in patients with APACHE II score ≤ 20 and patients younger than 55 demonstrated lower 30-day mortality and lower multiple-organ dysfunction score among patients treated with the restrictive strategy. In the subgroups of primary disease process (i.e. cardiac disease, severe infection/septic shock, and trauma) there was no significant differences among treatment arms.

Complications in the ICU were monitored, and there was a significant increase in cardiac events (primarily pulmonary edema) in the liberal strategy group when compared to the restrictive strategy group.

Discussion/Implication:
The TRICC trial demonstrated that, among ICU patients with anemia, there was no difference in 30-day mortality between a restrictive and liberal transfusion strategy. Secondary outcomes were notable for a decrease in inpatient mortality with the restrictive strategy. Furthermore, subgroup analyses showed benefit in various metrics for a restrictive transfusion strategy when adjusting for younger and less ill patients. This evidence laid the groundwork for our current standard of transfusing to hemoglobin 7g/dL. A restrictive strategy has also been supported by more recent studies. In 2014 the Transfusion Thresholds in Septic Shock (TRISS) study showed no change in 90-day mortality with a restrictive strategy. Additionally, in 2013 the Transfusion Strategy for Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding study showed reduced 40-day mortality in the restrictive strategy. However, the study’s exclusion of patients who had massive exsanguination or low rebleeding risk reduced generalizability. Currently, the Surviving Sepsis Campaign endorses transfusing RBCs only when Hgb < 7g/dL unless there are extenuating circumstances such as MI, severe hypoxemia, or active hemorrhage.

Further reading:
1. TRICC @ Wiki Journal Club, @ 2 Minute Medicine
2. TRISS @ Wiki Journal Club, full text, Georgetown Critical Care Top 40 pages 14-15
3. “Transfusion strategies for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding” (NEJM 2013) @ 52 in 52 (2017-2018) Week 46), @ Wiki Journal Club, full text
4. “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock 2016”

Summary by Gordon Pelegrin, MD

Image Credit: U.S. Air Force Master Sgt. Tracy L. DeMarco, US public domain, via WikiMedia Commons

Week 20 – Omeprazole for Bleeding Peptic Ulcers

“Effect of Intravenous Omeprazole on Recurrent Bleeding After Endoscopic Treatment of Bleeding Peptic Ulcers”

N Engl J Med. 2000 Aug 3;343(5):310-6. [free full text]

Intravenous proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy is a cornerstone of modern therapy for bleeding peptic ulcers. However, prior to this 2000 study by Lau et al., the role of PPIs in the prevention of recurrent bleeding after endoscopic treatment was unclear. At the time, re-bleeding rates after endoscopic treatment were noted to be approximately 15-20%. Although other studies had approached this question, no high-quality, large, blinded RCT had examined adjuvant PPI use immediately following endoscopic treatment.

The study enrolled patients who had a bleeding gastroduodenal ulcer visualized on endoscopy and in whom hemostasis was achieved following epinephrine injection and thermocoagulation. Enrollees were randomized to treatment with either omeprazole 80mg IV bolus followed by 8mg/hr infusion x72 hours then followed by omeprazole 20mg PO x8 weeks or to placebo bolus + drip x72 hours followed by omeprazole 20mg PO x8 weeks. The primary outcome was recurrent bleeding within 30 days. Secondary outcomes included recurrent bleeding within 72 hours, amount of blood transfused by day 30, hospitalization duration, and all-cause 30-day mortality.

120 patients were randomized to each arm. The trial was terminated early due to the finding on interim analysis of a significantly lower recurrent bleeding rate in the omeprazole arm. Bleeding re-occurred within 30 days in 8 (6.7%) omeprazole patients versus 27 (22.5%) placebo patients (HR 3.9, 95% CI 1.7-9.0; NNT 6.3). A Cox proportional-hazards model, when adjusted for size and location of ulcers, presence/absence of coexisting illness, and history of ulcer disease, revealed a similar hazard ratio (HR 3.9, 95% CI 1.7-9.1). Recurrent bleeding was most common during the first 72 hrs (4.2% of the omeprazole group versus 20% of the placebo group, RR 4.80, 95% CI 1.89-12.2, p<0.001). For a nice visualization of the early separation of re-bleeding rates, see the Kaplan-Meier curve in Figure 1. The mean number of units of blood transfused within 30 days was 2.7 ± 2.5 in the omeprazole group versus 3.5 ± 3.8 in the placebo group (p = 0.04). Regarding duration of hospitalization, 46.7% of omeprazole patients were admitted for < 5 days versus 31.7% of placebo patients (p = 0.02). Median stay was 4 days in the omeprazole group versus 5 days in the placebo group (p = 0.006). 4.2% of the omeprazole patients died within 30 days, whereas 10% of the placebo patients died (p = 0.13).

Treatment with intravenous omeprazole immediately following endoscopic intervention for bleeding peptic ulcer significantly reduced the rate of recurrent bleeding. This effect was most prominent within the first 3 days of therapy. This intervention also reduced blood transfusion requirements and shortened hospital stays. The presumed mechanism of action is increased gastric pH facilitating platelet aggregation. In 2018, the benefit of this intervention seems so obvious based on its description alone that one would not imagine that such a trial would be funded or published in such a high-profile journal. However, the annals of medicine are littered with now-discarded interventions that made sense from a theoretical or mechanistic perspective but were demonstrated to be ineffective or even harmful (e.g. pharmacologic suppression of ventricular arrhythmias post-MI or renal denervation for refractory HTN).

Today, bleeding peptic ulcers are treated with an IV PPI twice daily. Per UpToDate, meta-analyses have not shown a benefit of continuous PPI infusion over this IV BID dosing. However, per 2012 guidelines in the American Journal of Gastroenterology, patients with active bleeding or non-bleeding visible vessels should receive both endoscopic intervention and IV PPI bolus followed by infusion.

Further Reading/References:
1. Wiki Journal Club
2. 2 Minute Medicine
3. UpToDate, “Overview of the Treatment of Bleeding Peptic Ulcers”
4. Laine L, Jensen DM. “Management of patients with ulcer bleeding.” Am J Gastroenterol. 2012

Summary by Duncan F. Moore, MD

Image credit: Wesalius, CC BY 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Week 13 – Sepsis-3

“The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3)”

JAMA. 2016 Feb 23;315(8):801-10. [free full text]

In practice, we recognize sepsis as a potentially life-threatening condition that arises secondary to infection. Because the SIRS criteria were of limited sensitivity and specificity in identifying sepsis and because our understanding of the pathophysiology of sepsis had purportedly advanced significantly during the interval since the last sepsis definition, an international task force of 19 experts was convened to define and prognosticate sepsis more effectively. The resulting 2016 Sepsis-3 definition was the subject of immediate and sustained controversy.

In the words of Sepsis-3, sepsis simply “is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection.” The paper further defines organ dysfunction in terms of a threshold change in the SOFA score by 2+ points. However, the authors state that “the SOFA score is not intended to be used as a tool for patient management but as a means to clinically characterize a septic patient.” The authors note that qSOFA, an easier tool introduced in this paper, can identify promptly at the bedside patients “with suspected infection who are likely to have a prolonged ICU stay or die in the hospital.” A positive screen on qSOFA is identified as 2+ of the following: AMS, SBP ≤ 100, or respiratory rate ≥ 22. At the time of this endorsement of qSOFA, the tool had not been validated prospectively. Finally, septic shock was defined as sepsis with persistent hypotension requiring vasopressors to maintain MAP ≥ 65 and with a serum lactate > 2 despite adequate volume resuscitation.

As noted contemporaneously in the excellent PulmCrit blog post “Top ten problems with the new sepsis definition,” Sepsis-3 was not endorsed by the American College of Chest Physicians, the IDSA, any emergency medicine society, or any hospital medicine society. On behalf of the American College of Chest Physicians, Dr. Simpson published a scathing rejection of Sepsis-3 in Chest in May 2016. He noted “there is still no known precise pathophysiological feature that defines sepsis.” He went on to state “it is not clear to us that readjusting the sepsis criteria to be more specific for mortality is an exercise that benefits patients,” and said “to abandon one system of recognizing sepsis [SIRS] because it is imperfect and not yet in universal use for another system that is used even less seems unwise without prospective validation of that new system’s utility.”

In fact, the later validation of qSOFA demonstrated that the SIRS criteria had superior sensitivity for predicting in-hospital mortality while qSOFA had higher specificity. See the following posts at PulmCrit for further discussion: [https://emcrit.org/isepsis/isepsis-sepsis-3-0-much-nothing/] [https://emcrit.org/isepsis/isepsis-sepsis-3-0-flogging-dead-horse/].

At UpToDate, authors note that “data of the value of qSOFA is conflicting,” and because of this, “we believe that further studies that demonstrate improved clinically meaningful outcomes due to the use of qSOFA compared to clinical judgement are warranted before it can be routinely used to predict those at risk of death from sepsis.”

Additional Reading:
1. PulmCCM, “Simple qSOFA score predicts sepsis as well as anything else”
2. 2 Minute Medicine

Summary by Duncan F. Moore, MD

Image Credit: By Mark Oniffrey – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0

Week 12 – Rivers Trial

“Early Goal-Directed Therapy in the Treatment of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock”

N Engl J Med. 2001 Nov 8;345(19):1368-77. [free full text]

Sepsis is common and, in its more severe manifestations, confers a high mortality risk. Fundamentally, sepsis is a global mismatch between oxygen demand and delivery. Around the time of this seminal study by Rivers et al., there was increasing recognition of the concept of the “golden hour” in sepsis management – “where definitive recognition and treatment provide maximal benefit in terms of outcome” (1368). Rivers and his team created a “bundle” of early sepsis interventions that targeted preload, afterload, and contractility, dubbed early goal-directed therapy (EGDT). They evaluated this bundle’s effect on mortality and end-organ dysfunction.

The “Rivers trial” randomized adults presenting to a single US academic center ED with ≥ 2 SIRS criteria and either SBP ≤ 90 after a crystalloid challenge of 20-30ml/kg over 30min or lactate > 4mmol/L to either treatment with the EGDT bundle or to the standard of care.

Intervention: early goal-directed therapy (EGDT)

  • Received a central venous catheter with continuous central venous O2 saturation (ScvO2) measurement
  • Treated according to EGDT protocol (see Figure 2, or below) in ED for at least six hours
    • 500ml bolus of crystalloid q30min to achieve CVP 8-12mm
    • Vasopressors to achieve MAP ≥ 65
    • Vasodilators to achieve MAP ≤ 90
    • If ScvO2 < 70%, transfuse RBCs to achieve Hct ≥ 30
    • If, after CVP, MAP, and Hct were optimized as above and ScvO2 remained < 70%, dobutamine was added and uptitrated to achieve ScvO2 ≥ 70 or until max dose 20 μg/kg/min
      • dobutamine was de-escalated if MAP < 65 or HR > 120
    • Patients in whom hemodynamics could not be optimized were intubated and sedated, in order to decrease oxygen consumption
  • Patients were transferred to inpatient ICU bed as soon as able, and upon transfer ScvO2 measurement was discontinued
  • Inpatient team was blinded to treatment group assignment

The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary endpoints included: resuscitation end points, organ-dysfunction scores, coagulation-related variables, administered treatments, and consumption of healthcare resources.

130 patients were randomized to EGDT, and 133 to standard therapy. There were no differences in baseline characteristics. There was no group difference in the prevalence of antibiotics given within the first 6 hours. Standard-therapy patients spent 6.3 ± 3.2 hours in the ED, whereas EGDT patients spent 8.0 ± 2.1 (p < 0.001).

In-hospital mortality was 46.5% in the standard-therapy group, and 30.5% in the EGDT group (p = 0.009, NNT 6.25). 28-day and 60-day mortalities were also improved in the EGDT group. See Table 3.

During the initial six hours of resuscitation, there was no significant group difference in mean heart rate or CVP. MAP was higher in the EGDT group (p < 0.001), but all patients in both groups reached a MAP ≥ 65. ScvO2 ≥ 70% was met by 60.2% of standard-therapy patients and 94.9% of EGDT patients (p < 0.001). A combination endpoint of achievement of CVP, MAP, and UOP (≥ 0.5cc/kg/hr) goals was met by 86.1% of standard-therapy patients and 99.2% of EGDT patients (p < 0.001). Standard-therapy patients had lower ScvO2 and greater base deficit, while lactate and pH values were similar in both groups.

During the period of 7 to 72 hours, the organ-dysfunction scores of APACHE II, SAPS II, and MODS were higher in the standard-therapy group (see Table 2). The prothrombin time, fibrin-split products concentration, and d-dimer concentrations were higher in the standard-therapy group, while PTT, fibrinogen concentration, and platelet counts were similar.

During the initial six hours, EGDT patients received significantly more fluids, pRBCs, and inotropic support than standard-therapy patients. Rates of vasopressor use and mechanical ventilation were similar. During the period of 7 to 72 hours, standard-therapy patients received more fluids, pRBCs, and vasopressors than the EGDT group, and they were more likely to be intubated and to have pulmonary-artery catheterization. Rates of inotrope use were similar. Overall, during the first 72 hrs, standard-therapy patients were more likely to receive vasopressors, be intubated, and undergo pulmonary-artery catheterization. EGDT patients were more likely to receive pRBC transfusion. There was no group difference in total volume of fluid administration or inotrope use. Regarding utilization, there were no group differences in mean duration of vasopressor therapy, mechanical ventilation, or length of stay. Among patients who survived to discharge, standard-therapy patients spent longer in the hospital than EGDT patients (18.4 ± 15.0 vs. 14.6 ± 14.5 days, respectively, p = 0.04).

In conclusion, early goal-directed therapy reduced in-hospital mortality in patients presenting to the ED with severe sepsis or septic shock when compared with usual care. In their discussion, the authors note that “when early therapy is not comprehensive, the progression to severe disease may be well under way at the time of admission to the intensive care unit” (1376).

The Rivers trial has been cited over 10,500 times. It has been widely discussed and dissected for decades. Most importantly, it helped catalyze a then-ongoing paradigm shift of what “usual care” in sepsis is. As noted by our own Drs. Sonti and Vinayak and in their Georgetown Critical Care Top 40: “Though we do not use the ‘Rivers protocol’ as written, concepts (timely resuscitation) have certainly infiltrated our ‘standard of care’ approach.” The Rivers trial evaluated the effect of a bundle (multiple interventions). It was a relatively complex protocol, and it has been recognized that the transfusion of blood to Hgb > 10 may have caused significant harm. In aggregate, the most critical elements of the modern initial resuscitation in sepsis are early administration of antibiotics (notably not protocolized by Rivers) within the first hour and the aggressive administration of IV fluids (now usually 30cc/kg of crystalloid within the first 3 hours of presentation).

More recently, there have been three large RCTs of EGDT versus usual care and/or protocols that used some of the EGDT targets: ProCESS (2014, USA), ARISE (2014, Australia), and ProMISe (2015, UK). In general terms, EGDT provided no mortality benefit compared to usual care. Prospectively, the authors of these three trials planned a meta-analysis – the 2017 PRISM study – which concluded that “EGDT did not result in better outcomes than usual care and was associated with higher hospitalization costs across a broad range of patient and hospital characteristics.” Despite patients in the Rivers trial being sicker than those of ProCESS/ARISE/ProMISe, it was not found in the subgroup analysis of PRISM that EGDT was more beneficial in sicker patients. Overall, the PRISM authors noted that “it remains possible that general advances in the provision of care for sepsis and septic shock, to the benefit of all patients, explain part or all of the difference in findings between the trial by Rivers et al. and the more recent trials.”

Further Reading/References:
1. Wiki Journal Club
2. 2 Minute Medicine
3. Life in The Fast Lane
4. Georgetown Critical Care Top 40
5. “A randomized trial of protocol-based care for early septic shock” (ProCESS). NEJM 2014.
6. “Goal-directed resuscitation for patients with early septic shock” (ARISE). NEJM 2014.
7. “Trial of early, goal-directed resuscitation for septic shock” (ProMISe). NEJM 2015.
8. “Early, Goal-Directed Therapy for Septic Shock – A Patient-level Meta-Analysis” PRISM. NEJM 2017.
9. Surviving Sepsis Campaign
10. UpToDate, “Evaluation and management of suspected sepsis and septic shock in adults”

Summary by Duncan F. Moore, MD

Image Credit: By Clinical_Cases, [CC BY-SA 2.5] via Wikimedia Commons

Week 9 – NICE-SUGAR

“Intensive versus Conventional Glucose Control in Critically Ill Patients”

by the Normoglycemia in Intensive Care Evaluation–Survival Using Glucose Algorithm Regulation (NICE-SUGAR) investigators

N Engl J Med 2009;360:1283-97. [free full text]

On the wards we often hear 180 mg/dL used as the upper limit of acceptable for blood glucose with the understanding that tighter glucose control in inpatients can lead to more harm than benefit. The relevant evidence base comes from ICU populations, with scant direct data in non-ICU patients. The 2009 NICE-SUGAR study is the largest and best among this evidence base.

The study randomized ICU patients (expected to require 3 or more days of ICU-level care) to either “intensive” glucose control (target glucose 81 to 108 mg/dL) or conventional glucose control (target of less than 180 mg/dL). The primary outcome was 90-day all-cause mortality.

6104 patients were randomized to the two arms, and both groups had similar baseline characteristics. 27.5% of patients in the intensive-control group died versus 24.9% in the conventional-control group (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.28, p= 0.02). Severe hypoglycemia (< 40 mg/dL) was found in 6.8% of intensive patients but only 0.5% of conventional patients.

In conclusion, intensive glucose control increases mortality in ICU patients. The fact that only 20% of these patients had diabetes mellitus suggests that much of the hyperglycemia treated in this study (97% of intensive group received insulin, 69% of conventional) was from stress, critical illness, and corticosteroid use. For ICU patients, intensive insulin therapy is clearly harmful, but the ideal target glucose range remains controversial and by expert opinion appears to be 140-180. For non-ICU inpatients with or without diabetes mellitus, the ideal glucose target is also unclear – the ADA recommends 140-180, and the Endocrine Society recommends a pre-meal target of < 140 and random levels < 180.

References / Further Reading:
1. ADA Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2016 (skip to page S99)
2. Wiki Journal Club
3. Visual Abstract @ VisualMed

Summary by Duncan F. Moore, MD

Image Credit: Dietmar Rabich / Wikimedia Commons / “Würfelzucker — 2018 — 3564” / CC BY-SA 4.0

Week 7 – ARDSNet aka ARMA

“Ventilation with Lower Tidal Volumes as Compared with Traditional Tidal Volumes for Acute Lung Injury and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome”

by the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network (ARDSNet)

N Engl J Med. 2000 May 4;342(18):1301-8. [free full text]


Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory and highly morbid lung injury found in many critically ill patients. In the 1990s, it was hypothesized that overdistention of aerated lung volumes and elevated airway pressures might contribute to the severity of ARDS, and indeed some work in animal models supported this theory. Prior to the ARDSNet study, four randomized trials had been conducted to investigate the possible protective effect of ventilation with lower tidal volumes, but their results were conflicting.

The ARDSNet study enrolled patients with ARDS (diagnosed within 36 hours) to either a lower initial tidal volume of 6ml/kg, downtitrated as necessary to maintain plateau pressure ≤ 30 cm H2O, or to the “traditional” therapy of an initial tidal volume of 12 ml/kg, downtitrated as necessary to maintain plateau pressure ≤ 50 cm of water. The primary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and ventilator-free days within the first 28 days. Secondary outcomes included number of days without organ failure, occurrence of barotrauma, and reduction in IL-6 concentration from day 0 to day 3.

861 patients were randomized before the trial was stopped early due to the increased mortality in the control arm noted during interim analysis. In-hospital mortality was 31.0% in the lower tidal volume group and 39.8% in the traditional tidal volume group (p = 0.007, NNT = 11.4). Ventilator free days were 12±11 in the lower tidal volume group vs. 10±11 in the traditional group (n = 0.007). The lower tidal volume group had more days without organ failure (15±11 vs. 12±11, p = 0.006). There was no difference in rates of barotrauma among the two groups. Decrease in IL-6 concentration between days 0 and 3 was greater in the low tidal volume group (p < 0.001), and IL-6 concentration at day 3 was lower in the low tidal volume group (p = 0.002).

In summary, low tidal volume ventilation decreases mortality in ARDS relative to “traditional” tidal volumes. The authors felt that this study confirmed the results of prior animal models and conclusively answered the question of whether or not low tidal volume ventilation provided a mortality benefit. In fact, in the years following, low tidal volume ventilation became the standard of care, and a robust body of literature followed this study to further delineate a “lung-protective strategy.” Critics of the study noted that, at the time of the study, the “traditional” (standard of care) tidal volume in ARDS was less than the 12 ml/kg used in the comparison arm. (Non-enrolled patients at the participating centers were receiving a mean tidal volume of 10.3 ml/kg.) Thus not only was the trial making a comparison to a faulty control, but it was also potentially harming patients in the control arm. An excellent summary of the ethical issues and debate regarding this specific issue and regarding control arms of RCTs in general can be found here.

Corresponding practice point from Dr. Sonti and Dr. Vinayak and their Georgetown Critical Care Top 40: “Low tidal volume ventilation is the standard of care in patients with ARDS (P/F < 300). Use ≤ 6 ml/kg predicted body weight, follow plateau pressures, and be cautious of mixed modes in which you set a tidal volume but the ventilator can adjust and choose a larger one.”

PulmCCM is an excellent blog, and they have a nice page reviewing this topic and summarizing some of the research and guidelines that have followed.

Further Reading/References:
1. Wiki Journal Club
2. 2 Minute Medicine
3. PulmCCM “Mechanical Ventilation in ARDS: Research Update”
4. Georgetown Critical Care Top 40, page 6
5. PulmCCM “In ARDS, substandard ventilator care is the norm, not the exception.” 2017.

Summary by Duncan F. Moore, MD

Photo Credit: Hanno H. Endres at de.wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0